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            Dominant SST Mode in the Southern Hemisphere Extratropics and Its Influence on Atmospheric Circulation

            Fei ZHENG  Jianping LI  Fred KUCHARSKI  Ruiqiang DING  Ting LIU  
            【摘要】:The variability in the Southern Ocean(SO) sea surface temperature(SST) has drawn increased attention due to its unique physical features; therefore, the temporal characteristics of the SO SST anomalies(SSTA) and their influence on extratropical atmospheric circulation are addressed in this study. Results from empirical orthogonal function analysis show that the principal mode of the SO SSTA exhibits a dipole-like structure, suggesting a negative correlation between the SSTA in the middle and high latitudes, which is referred to as the SO Dipole(SOD) in this study. The SOD features strong zonal symmetry, and could reflect more than 50% of total zonal-mean SSTA variability. We find that stronger(weaker) Subantarctic and Antarctic polar fronts are related to the positive(negative) phases of the SOD index, as well as the primary variability of the large-scale SO SSTA meridional gradient. During December–January–February, the Ferrel cell and the polar jet shift toward the Antarctic due to changes in the SSTA that could be associated with a positive phase of the SOD, and are also accompanied by a poleward shift of the subtropical jet. During June–July–August, in association with a positive SOD, the Ferrel cell and the polar jet are strengthened, accompanied by a strengthened subtropical jet. These seasonal differences are linked to the differences in the configuration of the polar jet and the subtropical jet in the Southern Hemisphere.
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